"The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the. [9] The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. The remnants of the Mughal Empire include their monuments, most notably Fatehpur Sikri, Allahabad Fort, Agra Fort, and the Taj Mahal. Although Muslim incursions into the area occurred as early as 1000–30 ce, Muslim rule over northern India was not established until the last decade of the 12th century, when MuÊ¿izz al-DÄ«n Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad GhÅ«rÄ«) defeated the Gahadavalas (who occupied much of Uttar Pradesh) and other competing dynasties. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. [13] Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. [22] Akbar ruled from Agra and his newly established city, Fatehpur Sikri. In 2000, the state of Uttarakhand was carved out from Uttar pradesh, Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh[1][2][3] between around[4] 85 and 73 thousand years old. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. They minced no words in calling the Yogi government one of the most corrupt governments in the history of Uttar Pradesh. The Mughal Empire promoted the development of a new composite culture. Although UP later became the fifth largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and it would not be wrong to state that the history of Uttar Pradesh plays a key role in defining the lifestyle of the present day Uttar Pradesh. Several new sects seeking a common ground between Hinduism and Islam, as well as between the various castes of India, developed during that period. The main rivers of the state are Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti and Ghagra. Uttar Pradesh which includes a big chuck of Gangetic Plain was created as United Provinces in 1937 during British rule and after independence it was renamed as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. [29] It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP. The great war of the Mahabharata between the Kauravas and Pandavas was said to have been fought here. Faccenna, Domenico (1980). The epics of Hinduism, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata, were written in Uttar Pradesh. In 2000 BC the Aryans came and laid the foundation of a Hindu civilization. The state has provided seven of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. The setting of the Mahabharata is the area around Hastinapur, in the western part of the present-day state, while the Ramayana is set in and around Ayodhya, the birthplace of Rama (an incarnation of the god Vishnu and the hero of the story). [citation needed]. Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente). Medieval History of Uttar Pradesh. Similarly, there will be an article on medieval and modern Uttar Pradesh history tomorrow and … In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new r… The Delhi Sultanate ruled much of North India between 1206 and 1526 CE. Lakhimpur Kheeri is the largest district of Uttar Pradesh by area. In this article of series of UP Special, we will read about the ancient history of Uttar Pradesh. Sculptures and architecture replete with Buddhist symbolism reached their zenith during the 3rd-century-bce reign of Ashoka. After the Sultan’s death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. Akbar, its greatest exponent, employed in his court men preeminent in architecture, literature, painting, and music, irrespective of their caste or creed. Because of its position in the heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, it has often been the focal point in the history of all of northern India. Uttar Pradesh: A political history Over the last 25 years, a fractured verdict has been typical of India’s biggest, most important, and most complex political battleground. Uttar Pradesh for its strategic position, in ancient times was known the Madhya Desh. Liu, Xinru 2001 "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies.". History Tajmahal. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. The history of Uttar Pradesh still has a great impact on Indian culture and civilization. It was also known as part of Gandharva Forest. The region was also a site for the Indian Independence movement with the Indian National Congress. [32] Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. At first, Buddhist and Brahmanic or Hindu culture flourished side by side. Indian Studies Past and Present 4, 333–358. [12], During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith. In fact history significantly defines the lifestyle of the present Uttar Pradesh. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. Jahangir was succeeded by his son Shah Jahan. There were incidents of communal violence in 1980 and 1987. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very old and fascinating and had a great impact on the Indian culture and civilization. It boasts of a m lange of vivid culture and architectural finesse and is synonymous with vibrant hues, delectable cuisine, timeless traditions, monumental heritage and astounding music. Agra is the largest district by population. The Buddha is said to have attained parinirvana (complete nirvana) at Kushinagara (now in Kasia, in eastern Uttar Pradesh). After independence in 1947, the United Provinces were renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Chakrabarti, D.K. (ed.). In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. The history of Uttar Pradesh the Northern Indian state, stretches back technically to its formation on 1 April 1937 as the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, but the region itself shows the presence of human habitation dating back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago. There are many Mythological facts about the great historical value of district Bahraich. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be divided into five periods: (1) prehistory and mythology (up to c. 600 bce), (2) the Buddhist-Hindu period (c. 600 bce to c. 1200 ce), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1775), (4) the British period (c. 1775 to 1947), and (5) the postindependence period (1947 to the present). Remains of the Buddha's hut in Jetavana Monastery, Uttar Pradesh, India. Culture. The religion he founded, Buddhism, spread not only across India but also to many distant lands, such as China and Japan. Uttar Pradesh/Politics. Meanwhile, by the 6th century bce, the ancient Vedic religion had largely evolved into Brahmanism, which in turn would evolve into classical Hinduism by the 2nd century bce. Of those, seven fell entirely within the present-day boundaries of Uttar Pradesh. All these reivers except Gomti emerge from Himalayas. From the 5th century bce to the 6th century ce, the region was mostly under the control of powers centred outside the modern boundaries of the state, first at Magadha in present-day Bihar and later at Ujjain in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very much associated with the broad history of India. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. “Prayagasya […] Uttar Pradesh/Economy. Religious Importance. The meeting point is known as Triveni and is especially sacred to Hindus. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old[5] and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India; Bengal regiment's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment, Mangal Pandey, is widely credited as its starting point. The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 36, 193–275, ISSN 0076-2741. Besides the Kurus and Panchalas the Vatsas, the Kosis, Hosalas, Videhas etc formed the early region of Uttar Pradesh. Political History of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous and fourth largest state of India, which lies in the north-central part of the country. He was bestowed the title of Vikramaditya at his coronation in Purana Quila in Delhi. After the death of Harsha, about 647, there was a gradual downfall of Buddhism accompanied by a revival of Hinduism. A systematic history of India and the area of Uttar Pradesh dates to the end of the 7th century bce, when 16 mahajanapadas (great states) in northern India were contending for supremacy. The culture of Uttar Pradesh swears by its rich historical past with its roots from Urdu. edit. Uttar Pradesh - Uttar Pradesh - History: The history of Uttar Pradesh can be divided into five periods: (1) prehistory and mythology (up to c. 600 bce), (2) the Buddhist-Hindu period (c. 600 bce to c. 1200 ce), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1775), (4) the British period (c. 1775 to 1947), and (5) the postindependence period (1947 to the present). The region was the site of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, with revolts at Meerut, Kanpur, and Lucknow. Archaeological investigations have shed new light on the prehistoric civilization of what is now Uttar Pradesh. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak "The Arctic Home in the Vedas", Messrs Tilak Bros., 1903, This page was last edited on 23 July 2020, at 15:29. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bhardwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkaya, Vashishtha, Vishwamitra and Valmiki flourished in this state. The greatest extent of the empire came under Akbar (reigned 1556–1605), who constructed a grand new capital, Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra. Among the great kings who ruled over the region were Chandragupta (reigned c. 321–297 bce) and Ashoka (3rd century bce), both Mauryan emperors, as well as Samudra Gupta (4th century ce) and Chandra Gupta II (reigned c. 380–415). Some BJP lawmakers even called the present political dispensation a casteist. Indigo was cultivated in the adjoining areas of Agra during the … [35], After India's independence, the United Provinces were reorganized as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Uttar Pradesh/History. Learn more about Uttar Pradesh’s history and government in this article. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the Benaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and the Darul Uloom Deoband. The earlier settlements of the Aryans were established in this city, then known as Prayag. Share and tell about your experience related to Uttar Pradesh in our wiki-based forum or on the talk page here. Due to is position, most invaders crossed it in the course of their invasions. The downfall of the Mughals in the 18th century led to the shifting of the centre of that composite culture from Delhi to Lucknow, the seat of the nawab (ruler) of Oudh (now Ayodhya), where art, literature, music, and poetry flourished in an atmosphere of communal harmony. [12] It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It is generally accepted that Agra was both an ancient city from the times of the Mahabharata (see above) and yet nevertheless Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504. ; Agra was the main centre of education during the Mughal period. It was formed in 1937 when it was called the United Province of Agra and Oudh. [9] According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. His grandson, Shah Jahān (reigned 1628–58), built at Agra one of the world’s greatest architectural achievements, the Taj Mahal (a mausoleum constructed in memory of his favourite wife, who died in childbirth). [24], Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. The state was known as the 'Madhya Desha' in ancient era dating back to the Vedic and post Vedic period. Shah Jahān also built several other architecturally important buildings in Agra as well as in Delhi. [14] Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Agra.[18][19]. History Azamgarh, one of the easternmost districts of the State, once formed a part of the ancient Kosala kingdom, except the north-eastern part of it which was included in the kingdom of Malla. 2001. Uttar Pradesh Gk , History , important facts , Political Structure for Exams ... Uttar Pradesh GK & Current Affairs July to October 2017 - UPSSSC / UP PCS / UP PSC & other UP Exams - … Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh between around 85 and 72 thousand years old. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC  beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period; extending into the Iron Age. History of district Bahraich The dense forests and fast-flowing rivers are the specialities of district Bahraich. [10] Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh dates back to the period when 'Dasas' occupied Uttar Pradesh. Politics. Uttar Pradesh/Culture. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and it would not be wrong to state that the history of Uttar Pradesh plays a key role in defining the lifestyle of the present day Uttar Pradesh. 1992, a large group of Hindu activists demolished the 16th-century Babri Mosque in the city of Ayodhya, which is claimed to be the site of Ram Janmabhoomi. [27] Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad. [13] Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the 8th century to the 10th century.[15][16]. Shah Jahan was succeeded by his son Aurangzeb, who did not share the religious tolerance of his ancestors, and was infamous for the destruction of temples. Ramananda (c. 1400–70), a Brahman (Hindu priest), founded a bhakti (devotional) sect that claimed that salvation was not dependent on one’s sex or caste, and KabÄ«r (1440–1518) preached the essential unity of all religions. It was famous as the Capital of God Brahma, the maker of the universe. Beck, Munich, Yule, P./Hauptmann, A./Hughes, M. 1989 [1992]. The state’s name is Hindi for ‘northern state’ and its capital is Lucknow, in the west-central part of the state. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. Facts about Uttar Pradesh – The state of Uttar Pradesh lies in the northern part of India. From the rule of Rama to the rule of British, Uttar Pradesh has seen it all. Economy. [6][7][8], The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. The region seems to have been domesticated as early as 6,000 BC. Butkara I (Swāt, Pakistan) 1956–1962, Volume III 1 (in English). A later famous ruler, Harsha (reigned c. 606–647), was based within the state’s present borders. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement. Geography. After India’s Independence, this land was renamed as Uttar Pradesh on January 24, 1950. History Uttar Pradesh, abbreviated U.P., is a state locatedin northern India. [28] It came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After the revolt failed, the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganizing the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. [14] Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region. Stupa commemorating where the Buddha was said to have first taught his followers, Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India. Confidence limits for the age are 85 (±11) and 72 (±8) thousand years ago. [30][31], In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. In 1526 Bābur—a descendant of the conquerors Genghis Khan and Timur (Tamerlane)—defeated Sultan IbrāhÄ«m LodÄ« of Delhi and laid the foundation of the most successful of the Muslim dynasties, the Mughals, whose empire, centred in what is now Uttar Pradesh, dominated the subcontinent for more than 200 years. In ancient times, Uttar Pradesh was known as the Madhya Desh. It dates back to 4000 years. Even today Northeast […] Lucknow is the capital city and Allahabad is the Judiciary Capital of the state. [37], Middle Kingdoms (c. 200 BCE – c. 1200 CE), Late Medieval and Early Modern period (c. 1200-1858 CE), Company Rule and Indian Rebellion of 1857. Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor Akbar's rule. [26] Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Uttar Pradesh - History. Despite its political influence, its poor economic development and administrative record, organised crime and corruption kept it amongst India's backward states. [9], Most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. [21] After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be … The remains of several human skeletons found in the area of Partapgarh (Pratapgarh) have been dated to about 10,000 bce. info), líkas: Pangulung Lalawigan), [maralas deng ausang U.P. C.H. It is believed to be the land of the Nawabs, of Rama and Buddha, of Taj Mahal. [23] He was succeeded by his son Jahangir. [34] During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. This land has been rules by many in the course of history. [20] Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. History. The History of India by Kenneth Pletcher p.102, The City in South Asia by James Heitzman p.37, "Prehistoric human colonization of India", The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire), God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia, "Modern Human Origins and the Evolution of Behavior in the Later Pleistocene Record of South Asia", The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture, https://web.archive.org/web/20060908052731/http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_01.html, "Project MUSE – Journal of World History", The History and Culture of the Indian People, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Uttar_Pradesh&oldid=969128641, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [11] Following the Huns invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (100–250 CE), Gupta (350–600 CE), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036 CE) empires. Uttar Pradesh has the oldest seat of India’s culture and civilization, as it is around the holy river Ganga where the ancient cities and towns were found. edit. 2015-09-18 Government of Uttar Pradesh, India, confirms 2.3 million people applied for 238 menial office jobs; 2017-06-05 Bus crashes with a truck in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, 22 die in resulting fire; 2017-09-14 19 people die when a boat capsizes on Yamun River in Uttar Pradesh, India; 2017-11-27 8 Donkeys freed from jail after 4 days in Orai, Uttar Pradesh, India for eating plants edit. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the most significant examples of Indo-Islamic architecture. Other knowledge of the area prior to the 7th century bce has been gained largely through Vedic literature (of the ancient Indian Vedic religion) and the two great Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which describe the Gangetic Plain within Uttar Pradesh. The regions of Uttar Pradesh was said to have been the ancient Panchala country. Kosala figured prominently among the four powerful monarchies of northern India during the time of the Buddha when its Prosperity reached its zenith. Goyal, S. R. "Ancient Indian Inscriptions" Kusumanjali Book World, Jodhpur (India), 2005. Gupta, S.P. Ancient History of Uttar Pradesh The history of Uttar Pradesh starts with the advent of Aryans hordes from Central Asian region. The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization. Uttar Pradesh is the rainbow land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times immemorial. 1995. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 150… It will not only be insightful but, being revision friendly, it will be helpful for quick last-minute revision. The Ayodhya dispute triggered massive protests across the state as well as nationally and internationally. Uttar Pradesh State – The full name of Uttar Pradesh is ‘Uttar Pradesh Northern Province’. They alleged Uttar Pradesh police were persecuting people of other castes, other than Thakurs because the Chief Minister belonged to Thakur caste. From his capital at Kanyakubja (present-day Kannauj), he was able to control the whole of Uttar Pradesh as well as parts of what are now Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Interior room of the marble Octagonal Tower (Musamman Burj) in Agra Fort (Red Fort), Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The Aryans, through conquests occupied the adjoining areas too. Uttar Pradesh 2019: Population, History, Literacy and Facts. edit. Being on the route of invaders from north-west and forming part of the rich fertile plain between Delhi and Patna, its history is closely linked to the history of north India. 1968. The chief architect of that revival, the philosopher Shankara, born in southern India, visited Varanasi, traveled through the plains of Uttar Pradesh, and is thought to have established the famous temple at Badrinath (now in Uttarakhand) in the Himalayas. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. The region seems to have been domesticated as early as 6,000 BC. Stretching from the north-west territories to the eastern states its history is almost synonymous to the history of north India. Agra was founded by Sultan Sikander Lodhi in 1506.; After Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi ascended to the throne of Agra, who was defeated by Babur in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and Babur established the Mughal Empire. Another fountainhead of mythology in the state is the area around the holy cities of Mathura, where Krishna (another incarnation of Vishnu) was born, and nearby Vrindavan. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Buland Darwaza (Victory Gate) of the JāmiÊ¿ Masjid (Great Mosque) at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state of India. Its official and widely spoken languages are Hindi and Urdu. The history of Uttar Pradesh the Northern Indian state, stretches back technically to its formation on 1 April 1937 as the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, but the region itself shows the presence of human habitation dating back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago. It was created on 1st April 1937 as United Province and later renamed to 1 as Uttar Pradesh. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire, in the mid 18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohillkhand to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar.
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